- Learn about the Vietnam’s history and Hochiminh’s life
- Exploring thounsand-year civilization of Hanoi in Museum of Ethnology
Hanoi is located in the Red River Delta, in the center of North Việt Nam, is the capital of the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam, the center of culture, politics, economy and trade of the whole country. Throughout the thousand years of its eventful history, marked by destruction, wars and natural calamities, Hà Nội still preserves many ancient architectural works including the Old Quarter and over 600 pagodas and temples. Famous sites include the One Pillar Pagoda (built in 1049), the Temple of Literature (built in 1070), Hà Nội Citadel, Hà Nội Opera House, President Hồ Chí Minh's Mausoleum and so on.
Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum
Construction work began on September 2, 1973 and the structure was formally inaugurated on August 29, 1975. The mausoleum was inspired by Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow but incorporates distinct Vietnamese architectural elements, such as the sloping roof. The exterior is made of gray granite, while the interior is gray, black, and red polished stone. The mausoleum's portico has the words "Chủ tịch Hồ Chí Minh" inscribed across it, meaning "President Ho Chi Minh."
In his will, Ho Chi Minh stated his wish to be cremated and to have his ashes scattered in the hills of north, central, and southern Vietnam. He said that he preferred cremation because it would be "more hygienic than burial and would also save land for agricultural purposes." The mausoleum was built in spite of his wishes.
The structure is 21.6 metres high and 41.2 metres wide. Flanking the mausoleum are two platforms with seven steps for parade viewing. The plaza in front of the mausoleum is divided into 240 green squares separated by pathways. The gardens surrounding the mausoleum have nearly 250 different species of plants and flowers, all from different regions of Vietnam.
Tran Quoc Pagoda
Vietnam, spreads over 2,000 square kilometers, but most important sites lie in compact areas. Touring the major landmarks of Hanoi can be interesting. You can also try a trip around West Lake that takes in the rural suburbs. Tran Quoc Pagoda in Hanoi is such a place where you can visit during your tour to Hanoi.
A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Japan, Korea, Nepal and other parts of Asia. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function. The modern pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa, a tomb-like structure where sacred relics could be kept safe and venerated.
The most exciting fact about the pagoda is that the earliest example in the Oxford English Dictionary of the use of the word pagoda in English is from 1634. Pagoda - comes from Sanskrit "dhatu garba". Tran Quoc Pagoda in Hanoi is one such piece of architecture.
Temple of Literature
It is surely someone knows and hear of Temple of Literature, the first university of Vietnam. Visiting this ancient complex brings the tourists the experience of discovering, exploring the glorious history of Vietname and the uniqueness of the architecture. With the purpose of worshiping the Confucius, the Confucian sages and high-ranking mandarin Chu Van An. In the temple, with more than 700 years of operation(1076 - 1802), thousands of talents for the country had been trained and graduated for serving the country. At the present, there are still 82 steles on the back of stone tortoises which recorded the names, places of birth and achievements of successful contestants in the examinations between 1442 and 1778.
The Sword lake is really an emerald jewel of Hanoi. For generations, the Vietnamese believed that deep in the green water of the Sword lake, there is a sacred sword of their ancestors, which is carefully safeguarded by the golden tortoise. When the weather changes, the tortoise emerges on the water surface to take a sun bath, seeming to prove his existence and remind the young generation of their national history of defending their country from foreign invaders.
Museum of Ethnology
The Museum of Ethnology is a valuable centre for the exhibition and the preservation of cultural heritages of the 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam. To date, the Museum has collected 15,000 artifacts, 2,190 slides, 42,000 photographs, 237 audiotapes, 373 videotapes and 25 CD-ROMs. It is also a centre for ethnographic research employing many experts on the different ethnic groups. People come to the Museum just not only to visit or entertain, but also to learn about these ethnic groups, their cultural diversity and the uniqueness of each group and region, as well as traditional values throughout the Vietnamese country.